Power and decision making: new directions for research in the age of artificial intelligence

Fast, N., & Schroeder, J. (2019). Power and decision making: new directions for research in the age of artificial intelligence. Current Opinion in Psychology 172-176.

  • Short Summary: Throughout history, the experience of power has occurred within the context of human–human interactions. Such power can influence decision making through at least two primary mechanisms: (1) increased goal-orientation, and (2) increased activation of social role expectations. Importantly, new advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are creating the potential to experience power in human–AI interactions. To the extent that some forms of AI can be made to seem like low-power humans (e.g. autonomous digital assistants), people may feel powerful when interacting with such entities. However, it is unclear whether feeling power over AI will lead to the same psychological consequences as feeling power over humans. In this article, we review findings on power and decision making and then consider how they may be meaningfully extended by considering interactions with artificially intelligent digital assistants. We conclude with a call for new theorizing and research on power in the age of artificial intelligence.

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Two social lives: How differences between online and offline interaction influence social outcomes

Lieberman, A., & Schroeder, J. (2019). Two social lives: How differences between online and offline interaction influence social outcomes. Current Opinion in Psychology, 31, 16-21.

  • Short Summary: For hundreds of thousands of years, humans only communicated in-person, but in just the past fifty years they have started also communicating online. Today, people communicate more online than offline. What does this shift mean for human social life? We identify four structural differences between online (vs. offline) interaction: 1) fewer nonverbal cues, 2) greater anonymity, 3) more opportunity to form new social ties and bolster weak ties, and 4) wider dissemination of information. Each of these differences underlie systematic psychological and behavioral consequences. Online and offline lives often intersect; we further review how online engagement can (1) disrupt or (2) enhance offline interaction. This work provides a framework for studying the influence of technology on social life.

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Tell it Like it is: When Politically Incorrect Language Promotes Authenticity

Rosenblum, M., Schroeder, J., & Gino, F. (in press). Tell is like it is: When politically incorrect language promotes authenticity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

  • Short Summary: This paper tests how political language influences impressions of a communicator. Using more politically incorrect (vs. correct) language made a communicator appear more authentic but less warm, and these impressions were moderated by both the political ideology of the perceiver and of the target group to whom the language was applied. (9 experiments).

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The Preference for Distributed Helping

Sharps, D., & Schroeder, J. (in press). The preference for distributed helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

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Handshaking Promotes Dealmaking by Signaling Cooperative Intent

Schroeder, J., Risen, J.L., Gino, F. & Norton, M.I. (2019). Handshaking promotes dealmaking by signaling cooperative intent. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 116, 743-768.

  • Short Summary: In the context of economic games and integrative and distributive negotiations, handshakes—which are ritualistic behaviors imbued with meaning beyond mere physical contact—signal a counterpart's intent to be cooperative and promote deal-making outcomes (7 studies).

  • Best Student-led Paper Award, International Association for Conflict Management

  • Data and Materials, Pre-registration (Study 5 replication)

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Enacting Rituals to Improve Self-Control

Tian, D., Schroeder, J., Haubl, G., Risen, J.L., Norton, M.I., & Gino, F. (2018). Enacting rituals to improve self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 851-876.

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The Psychology of Rituals: An Integrative Review and Process-Based Framework

Hobson, N.M., Schroeder, J., Risen, J.L., Xygalatas, D., & Inzlicht, M. (2018). The psychology of rituals: An integrative review and process-based framework. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 22, 260-284.

  • Short Summary: Rituals primarily regulate (1) social connection, (2) emotions, and (3) performance goal states. We propose a framework linking the top-down and bottom-up mechanisms behind each of these regulatory functions.

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The Humanizing Voice: Speech Reveals, and Text Conceals, a More Thoughtful Mind in the Midst of Disagreement

Schroeder, J., Kardas, M., & Epley, N. (2017). The humanizing voice: Speech reveals, and text conceals, a more thoughtful mind in the midst of disagreement. Psychological Science, 28, 1745-1762.

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Functional Intimacy: Needing—But Not Wanting—the Touch of a Stranger

Schroeder, J., Fishbach, A., Schein, C., & Gray, K. (2017). Functional intimacy: Needing—but not wanting—the touch of a stranger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113, 910-924.

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Endorsing Help for Others That You Oppose for Yourself: Mind Perception Alters the Perceived Effectiveness of Paternalism

Schroeder, J., Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2017). Endorsing help for others that you oppose for yourself: Mind perception alters the perceived effectiveness of paternalism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146, 1106-1125.

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Mistaking Minds and Machines: How Speech Affects Dehumanization and Anthropomorphism

Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2016). Mistaking minds and machines: How speech affects dehumanization and anthropomorphism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 1427-1437.

  • Short Summary: Hearing a human speech (compared with reading the same words in text or watching a human communicator with subtitles) makes evaluators more likely to believe a script was created by a human (vs. computer) regardless of whether it actually was created by a human (4 experiments).

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Don’t Stop Believing: Rituals Improve Performance by Decreasing Anxiety

Brooks, A.W., Schroeder. J., Risen, J.L., Gino, F., Galinsky, A., Norton, M.I., & Schweitzer, M.E. (2016). Don’t stop believing: Rituals improve performance by decreasing anxiety. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 137, 71-85.

  • Short Summary: Individuals in high-anxiety performance situations who complete pre-performance rituals (versus random gestures, trying to calm down, or sitting in silence) feel less anxiety and may perform better (5 experiments).

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Many Hands Make Overlooked Work: Overclaiming of Responsibility Increases With Group Size

Schroeder, J., Caruso, E., & Epley, N. (2016). Many hands make overlooked work: Overclaiming of responsibility increases with group size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 238-246.

  • Short Summary: Overclaiming (when group members’ contribution claims sum to more than 100 percent) increases as the group size increases because people fail to sufficiently consider their group members’ contributions (4 studies).

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Befriending the Enemy: Outgroup Friendship Longitudinally Predicts Intergroup Attitudes in a Co-Existence Program for Israelis and Palestinians

Schroeder, J., & Risen, J.L. (2016). Befriending the enemy: Outgroup friendship longitudinally predicts intergroup attitudes in a co-existence program for Israelis and Palestinians. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 19, 72-93.

  • Short Summary: Outgroup relationships longitudinally and bidirectionally predict intergroup attitude change in a co-existence camp among Israeli and Palestinian teenagers (3 years of data collection).

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How to Motivate Yourself and Others? Intended and Unintended Consequences

Schroeder, J., & Fishbach, A. (2015). How to motivate yourself and others? Intended and unintended consequences. Research in Organizational Behavior, 35, 123-141.

  • Short Summary: We overview three common motivational strategies and when they backfire: giving feedback, setting goal targets, and applying incentives.

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The “Empty Vessel” Physician: Instrumentality Makes Physicians Seem Personally Empty

Schroeder, J., & Fishbach, A. (2015). The “empty vessel” physician: Instrumentality makes physicians seem personally empty. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 940-949.

  • Short Summary: Individuals who have more need for medical care focus more on physicians’ traits relevant to their needs, perceiving physicians as more competent and failing to notice their personal emotions (6 experiments).

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The Sound of Intellect: Speech Reveals a Thoughtful Mind, Increasing a Job Candidate’s Appeal

Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2015). The sound of intellect: Speech reveals a thoughtful mind, increasing a job candidate’s appeal. Psychological Science, 26, 877-891.

  • Short Summary: People evaluate job candidates’ mental capacities more highly when they hear their “elevator pitches” than when they read them, and are more interested in hiring them (4 experiments).

  • Featured as Editor’s Choice in Science, 348, p. 877.

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Mistakenly Seeking Solitude

Epley, N., & Schroeder, J. (2014). Mistakenly seeking solitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1980-1999.

  • Short Summary: People prefer to sit in solitude in public settings (on buses, trains, cabs, and in waiting rooms) than to talk to a stranger, but when randomly assigned to talk to a stranger in these same settings, report greater happiness and no less productivity compared with sitting in silence or doing what they want (10 experiments).

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A (Creative) Portrait of the Uncertain Individual: Self-Uncertainty and Individualism Enhance Creative Generation

Rios, K., Markman, K.D., Schroeder, J., & Dyczewski, E.A. (2014). A (creative) portrait of the uncertain individual: Self-uncertainty and individualism enhance creative generation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1050-1062.

  • Short Summary: Self-uncertainty, relative to uncertainty in general, increases creative generation among individualists (5 studies).

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Overlooking Others: Dehumanization by Commission and Omission

Waytz, A., & Schroeder, J. (2014). Overlooking others: Dehumanization by commission and omission. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 1-16.

  • Short Summary: We distinguish between two forms of dehumanization, dehumanization by commission (actively and overtly representing others as subhuman) and dehumanization by omission (more passively overlooking others’ mental capacities).

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