Two social lives: How differences between online and offline interaction influence social outcomes

Lieberman, A., & Schroeder, J. (2019). Two social lives: How differences between online and offline interaction influence social outcomes. Current Opinion in Psychology, 31, 16-21.

  • Short Summary: For hundreds of thousands of years, humans only communicated in-person, but in just the past fifty years they have started also communicating online. Today, people communicate more online than offline. What does this shift mean for human social life? We identify four structural differences between online (vs. offline) interaction: 1) fewer nonverbal cues, 2) greater anonymity, 3) more opportunity to form new social ties and bolster weak ties, and 4) wider dissemination of information. Each of these differences underlie systematic psychological and behavioral consequences. Online and offline lives often intersect; we further review how online engagement can (1) disrupt or (2) enhance offline interaction. This work provides a framework for studying the influence of technology on social life.

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The Preference for Distributed Helping

Sharps, D., & Schroeder, J. (in press). The preference for distributed helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

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Endorsing Help for Others That You Oppose for Yourself: Mind Perception Alters the Perceived Effectiveness of Paternalism

Schroeder, J., Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2017). Endorsing help for others that you oppose for yourself: Mind perception alters the perceived effectiveness of paternalism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146, 1106-1125.

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Befriending the Enemy: Outgroup Friendship Longitudinally Predicts Intergroup Attitudes in a Co-Existence Program for Israelis and Palestinians

Schroeder, J., & Risen, J.L. (2016). Befriending the enemy: Outgroup friendship longitudinally predicts intergroup attitudes in a co-existence program for Israelis and Palestinians. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 19, 72-93.

  • Short Summary: Outgroup relationships longitudinally and bidirectionally predict intergroup attitude change in a co-existence camp among Israeli and Palestinian teenagers (3 years of data collection).

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Overlooking Others: Dehumanization by Commission and Omission

Waytz, A., & Schroeder, J. (2014). Overlooking others: Dehumanization by commission and omission. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 1-16.

  • Short Summary: We distinguish between two forms of dehumanization, dehumanization by commission (actively and overtly representing others as subhuman) and dehumanization by omission (more passively overlooking others’ mental capacities).

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The Lesser Minds Problem

Waytz, A., Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2014). The lesser minds problem. In Bain, P., Vaes, J., & Leyens, J. P. (Eds.) Humanness and Dehumanization (pp. 49-67). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  • Short Summary: A common psychological bias is assuming others have less active and sophisticated mind than we do. We identify three forms of this Lesser Minds Problem and its consequences.

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Motivated Mind Perception: Treating Pets as People and People as Animals

Epley, N., Schroeder, J., & Waytz, A. (2013). Motivated mind perception: Treating pets as people and people as animals. In Gervais, S. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 60, pp 127–152). Springer: New York.

  • Short Summary: We suggest anthropomorphism is guided by two primary motives, the need to explain behavior and the need to connect with others.


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